The Authority for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection (ANVS) ensures that the highest standards of nuclear safety and radiation protection are met in the Netherlands. The ANVS performs that role by laying down rules, issuing licences, ensuring that licence-holders abide by the conditions and, if the need arises, taking enforcement action. The ANVS was formed in 2015 by bringing together the knowledge and expertise necessary to perform those activities at a high level. The ANVS became an independent administrative authority (“zbo” in Dutch) in 2017. This enables decisions to be made independently. The ANVS is answerable to the Minister of Infrastructure and the Environment.